Fukuyama end of history essay

“The end of history would mean the end of wars and bloody revolutions. Agreeing on ends, men would have no large causes for which to fight. They would satisfy their needs through economic activity, but they would no longer have to risk their lives in battle. They would in other words become animals, as before the bloody battle that began history… Once our physical and mental states are satisfied we no longer have any use for one of the things that has been driving us toward an historical end. We no longer need to impose our dignity upon others.” ()

FUKUYAMA: Well, as a, you know, as a citizen, I feel that it's a little bit too exciting. Every day, you wake up and you really read something you thought was not possible in terms of American politics. As a dispassionate social scientist, I actually think that it's quite interesting, you know, because we have these theories about institutions and how they're supposed to work. And it's going to be a test. I think we're all in for an interesting test of the stability of our democratic institutions, how legitimate they are, whether they can actually self-correct.

Already in Plato’s efforts to portray archetypal features of human nature the need for recognition expressed by the term "thymos" played a central role. Plato’s "thymos" may be understood as the human desire to be regarded by one’s environment the way one evaluates oneself. If one’s self-esteem and the recognition one receives from others dissent, the reaction is anger. In this respect "thymos" represents a source of human discord which often results in confrontation and war. Disappointing one’s own expectations of oneself on the other hand causes shame, whereas their fulfilment occasions pride. In extreme cases "thymos" manifests in extraordinary ambitions called “megalothymia”, which give rise to outstanding achievements . in politics, warfare, economy, science and art.

Fukuyama end of history essay

fukuyama end of history essay


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