1. Keynesian or "pump priming" economics. Based on the beliefs of economist John Maynard Keynes it held that money should be invested in the people, the working class. Then spending would increase with new money in circulation. As spending increased it was expected that businesses would expand to meet the new demand and hire new workers. This would spur on more spending and more growth. This plan was the opposite of the Republican plan ascribed to by Hoover and earlier leaders. They had believed in supply side or "trickle down" economics. In this philosophy money was to be invested at top, in business. Then businesses would expand, hire new workers and this in turn would spur on spending and further economic growth.