This toolkit models the recommendations emerging from a Strategic Frame Analysis® – a multi-method investigation into the communications aspects of a social issue that yields evidence-based, actionable reframing tools and strategies. FrameWorks Institute conducted this research on behalf of the National Human Services Assembly (the Assembly), an association that represents more than 80 of the largest national nonprofit organizations. The reframing research and toolkit are a key part of the Assembly’s National Reframing Initiative, which seeks to build public understanding of human services to encourage more vibrant civic participation and deepen support for effective programs. This project is generously funded by the Kresge Foundation and the Annie E. Casey Foundation.
Any number of narrative elements with symbolic significance can be classified as motifs—whether they are images, spoken or written phrases, structural or stylistic devices, or other elements like sound, physical movement, or visual components in dramatic narratives. While it may appear interchangeable with the related concept theme ,  a general rule is that a theme is abstract and a motif is concrete.  A theme is usually defined as a message, statement, or idea, while a motif is simply a detail repeated for larger symbolic meaning. In other words, a narrative motif—a detail repeated in a pattern of meaning—can produce a theme; but it can also create other narrative aspects. Nevertheless, the distinction between the two terms remains difficult to pinpoint. For instance, the term " thematic patterning " has been used to describe the way in which "recurrent thematic concepts" are patterned to produce meaning, such as the "moralistic motifs" found throughout the stories epic narrative One Thousand and One Nights .